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Church's Role in Rwanda Genocide

27 March 2011
 

Generally, in Rwanda, the leadership of the Christian churches, especially that of the Catholic Church, played a central role in the creation and furtherance of racist ideology. They fostered a system which Europeans introduced and they encouraged. The building blocks of this ideology were numerous, but one can mention a few – first, the racist vision of Rwandan society that the missionaries and colonialists imposed by developing the thesis about which groups came first and last to populate the country (the Hamitic and Bantu myths); second, by rigidly controlling historical and anthropological research; third, by reconfiguring Rwandan society through the manipulation of ethnic identities (from their vague socio-political nature in the pre-colonial period, these identities gradually became racial).

卢旺达的种族歧视观念主要是通过耶教教会组织,尤其是天主教会,从欧洲引入的,一并引入的还有全套的欧式社会体制。卢旺达种族主义形成的原因很多,最主要的首先是帮助耶教传教士和殖民主义者决定谁可以繁衍、谁必须灭绝,其次是为了控制对历史和人文的解释权,再就是使这些政治和社会阶层的分化人为地凝固成不同民族的区分,并利用民族等级制度打一派拉一派。

Church authorities contributed to the spread of racist theories mainly through the schools and seminaries over which they exercised control. The elite who ruled the country after independence trained in these schools. According to Church historian Paul Rutayisire, the stereotypes used by the Hutu-dominated Rwandan government to dehumanise Tutsis, were also spread by some influential clergymen, bishops and priests, before and after the genocide. The Catholic Church and colonial powers worked together in organizing racist political groups like the Party for the Emancipation of the Hutu (Parmehutu).

教会当局主要通过他们控制的学校和布道会宣扬种族主义。独立后的卢旺达统治精英们都是在这些学校和教会里受的教育。根据教会史学家玻尔·如他已赛的说法,大屠杀前胡图政府中普遍存在的对土瓷的种族仇恨皆起源于耶教教士、主教和牧师的灌输。天主教会和殖民主义分子相互勾结,在政府中组织起如胡图解放党之类的种族主义政治团体。

The Church decided to adopt silence and slander as defence mechanisms. The question is why the Vatican has accepted or tolerated such tendencies.

但教会采取了对指控不理不睬、对指控者造谣诬蔑的对策。问题是为什么梵蒂冈会容忍教会的这种做法。

The call for remorse and repentance still seems unnecessary and problematical for the Catholic Church. In March 1996, Pope John Paul II told the Rwandan people, the guilt “The Church... cannot be held responsible for of its members that have acted against the evangelic law; they will be called to render account of their own actions. All Church members that have sinned during the genocide must have the courage to assume the consequences of their deeds they have done against God and fellow men.”

一方面天主教廷对要求它对卢旺达种族屠杀负责和道歉的呼吁置之不理,一方面教皇约翰·保尔二世于1996年三月教训卢旺达民众:教会对其神职人员违反教义的行为并不负有责任;谁干的谁负责。所有大屠杀的罪人都应该有勇气承担自己的罪责。

The Catholic Church was the institution involved in all the stages of genocide. It is astounding to hear about the “love, truth and trust” that the Church has achieved in a country where genocide took more than a million lives in just a hundred days, and to see the institutional Church protecting, instead of punishing, or at least denouncing those among its leadership or in its membership who are accused of genocide.

天主教会从头至尾参与了卢旺达的种族屠杀。教廷一面大谈百年来天主的爱、真、诚如何在卢旺达传播,一面却让上百万人在一百天的时间里丧失了性命,而教廷不但拒绝保护受害者惩罚作恶人,连口头讨伐一下犯罪的神职人员和教会成员都做不到。

There is no doubt that throughout the history of Rwanda, Church leaders have had ties with political power. The Church was also involved in the policy of ethnic division, which degenerated into ethnic hatred.

毫无疑问的是,在卢旺达的历史上,教会当局不但和卢旺达的政治权力纠缠在一起,根本就是种族分离、进而煽动种族仇恨的始作俑者。

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