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America and War

6 January 2010
 

The following is the except of an article by Jon Basil Utley and its Chinese translation:

美国文化意味着战争,是当今世界不太平、不公平的元凶。

It seems the deep roots of its militant culture and mentality has a deep root in old British imperial mentality. The first major ally is the military-industrial complex, now funded by the new system of hidden congressional earmarks. Arnaud de Borchgrave first wrote about there being 15,000 defense budget earmarks. These allow a congressman to slip contracts into the budget for favored constituents, who then donate money to the congressman's reelection committee and may also provide well-paid jobs in their districts. These encourage warmaking, or at least threats of war, as never before. It's hard to hide money in the budget for "a bridge to nowhere," but a missile to nowhere will never be questioned, as its sponsors cloak their profits in "national defense."

美国好战文化的源头根植于老英国的以统治全球为目的的帝国文化,其最重要的支持者是美国的军火工业,而军火工业最重要的支持者是美国参议院。参议员们举手通过庞大的军火预算,再将军火项目外包给军火商,军火商再将其中的一部分“捐赠”给参议员们,使其能继续在参院中举手通过庞大的军火预算,再将项目外包给军火商。从预算帐面上来说,你很难将一大笔钱放在一个子虚乌有的空项目之下,但如果这笔预算是用来支付一枚导弹的研制的话,那就没问题了,尽管这枚导弹打击的很可能是一个子虚乌有的目标。在“国防开支”的遁词下议员们和军火商们彼此“恭喜发财”,皆大欢喜。

Among the beneficiaries are the new mercenaries, all the companies subcontracted by the Department of Defense to provide everything from kitchen services to bodyguards and intelligence. All of these are very well paid and now have an interest in promoting unending wars. Add to this the new power of think tanks taking money from war-wanting corporations and foundations to hire skilled polemicists and propagandists to work the 24-hour news cycle.

从庞大的“国防预算”中受益的商人除了军火商,还有那些与军事有关的行业,包括为军队提供伙食的厨师们,为军队提供安全的保安们,为军队提供情报的间谍们。所有这些人都因此发财,并都因此要将战争一直打下去,打个没完,无论和谁打,怎么打。然后再加上那些因鼓吹战争而得到军火商大笔捐款的政府智囊们、媒界大佬们、编辑们、记者们。

The complex has seen military spending triple since 9/11.

所有这些人的努力终于促使美国的军事开支自9.11以来连涨了三倍。

The collapse of communism had threatened them. As they faced lower budgets, they offered a plan to keep military budgets high. The bin Laden attack suited them perfectly. Hundreds of billions were then appropriated for the complex, even for weapons irrelevant to the war on terror. Unbelievable profits rolled in. But few question the waste, and all the Republican presidential candidates (except Ron Paul) and most of the Democrats want to increase it further.

前苏联与东欧社会主义阵营的瓦解对美国执政利益集团来说不是福音而是噩耗。眼瞅着军事预算有被大幅度消减的可能,一个新的战争计划形成了。这就是向拉登宣战的来由。上千亿美金的预算被批准了,很大一部分用于研制与和“恐怖组织”作战丝毫挂不上钩的其它杀人武器。巨大的利润产生了。几乎所有的共和党总统候选人及大部分民主党总统候选人都发誓要继续追加军用开支。

Next come the religious fundamentalists' dominant minority of Armageddonites, those who see Israel's expansion as expediting the return of Christ. They see Bush as God's agent. They saw, in the words of Tom DeLay, that the war in Iraq was a prelude to the chaos necessary to bring about the "end times."

美国基督福音派立马跟进,竭力支持增加军费。他们将以色列侵占阿拉伯领土看作是基督下世的征兆,将小布什看作神的使者,将攻打伊拉克看作是由世界大乱至世界末日的必经之路。

Then there's Big Oil. Although long ago it opposed the Israel lobby for antagonizing the Muslim world, more recently it has cast its lot with imperialism. Kevin Phillips argues in his book American Theocracy that Big Oil supported the Iraq war. It feared that Washington had made American interests so unwelcome in much of the Muslim world that future concessions and contracts would be going to Chinese, French, Italian, Indian, and Russian companies. In this view, conquering Iraq and placing major military bases on its soil would sustain a friendly government that would give first choice to American interests. Needless to say, it's not working out that way. Iraq's oil production is minimal, and even Saudi Arabia chose a French company over American rivals for its last big postwar contract. The war also further revived Russian nationalism and aroused major anti-American forces in Central Asia so that American oil companies are weakened there as well.

紧跟其后的是美国的石油工业。石油巨头们曾经反对以色列因扩张领土而惹怒伊斯兰世界,但后来他们转风向了,将注头下在美国的帝国全球军事扩张政策上。凯文·非利浦在其大作《美国宗教》中指出,美国的石油工业是伊拉克战争的积极支持者。由于美国政府的所作所为在伊斯兰世界日益不得人心,石油巨头们担心中东政府或将大宗石油开采合同转给中国、法国、意大利、印度或俄国公司。有鉴于此,征服伊拉克扶植亲美傀儡政权就成了保证美国在中东石油利益的当务之急。当然,正如大家都看到的,他们的企图失败了。伊拉克其实并没有多少石油资源,而沙特已经将伊战后最大的油田开采合同交给了法国人。俄国的民族主义因伊拉克战争而觉醒,反美浪潮席卷中亚,在在都进一步削弱美国石油工业在全球的地位。

Then come many leading American conservatives. Mostly ignorant of the outside world and still fighting the Cold War against the United Nations, they see the world as allied against America. They strongly sympathized with Bush's go-it-alone agenda. Many have a knee-jerk response to military spending, that more is always better. Others feel hostility toward Arabs and Muslims and see Israelis as being like us.

During the first Iraq war in 1991, when I was a co-founder of the Committee to Avert a Mideast Holocaust, I saw how many conservatives still resented losing the Vietnam War and wanted to prove to recalcitrant Third Worlders that we could "win" such wars.

最后就是美国的保守派。他们中的大多数人对外部世界都很无知且充满恐惧,还在那儿一心一意地打他们的冷战。这些人极端痛恨跟他们信仰和习俗不同的穆斯林世界,感觉唯有超强大的美国军事能力才能赋予他们安全感。

更可怕的是在美国还有相当一部分好战分子不甘于越南战争的失败,指望能发动第三次世界大战并通过战争雪耻。

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