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A New Fraud Case against Fang - Zachary Burton's Watchdog against China

21 November 2010
 

The No. 1 FFB (Fraud Fang Bust) specialist Yi Ming (亦明) today exposed a new plagiarism case against Shi-min Fang, a VIP (Veteran Information Plagiarist) student of Zachary Burton, on No. 1 Chinese FBI (Fraud Bust Information) site rainbowplan.org/bbs/edu/.

There are 3 passages that form the core argument in Fang's article written in Chinese titled What Illness Darwin Suffered?, which was published on China Youth on November 1, 2006. However, Fang did not bother to mention the sources of the evidences that supported his argument.

By performing a quick online search with key words "Darwin + lactose intolerance", Yi Ming, an accomplished academic both in languages of Chinese and English, and in fields of literature and science, discovered the theory and the evidences in Fang's article all came from two research papers published on British Postgrad Med 5005 Mar and Apr; yet Fang presents them in a way as if they are his own work. It seems Fang has failed to learn some very basic principles on essay and research paper writing from Professor Zachary Burton.

方舟子四年前曾抄袭一家英国医学院学报

by 亦明

2006年11月1日,《中国青年报》发表了方舟子的《达尔文得了什么病》一文。其中说:

“最新的研究表明达尔文得的其实是一种当时不知道的疾病——全身性乳糖不耐症。哺乳动物的乳汁中都含有乳糖,小孩喝了奶以后,乳糖在小肠中被乳糖酶分解成葡萄糖和半乳糖,然后被吸收。断奶以后,人体就渐渐丧失了乳糖酶,这时候如果再吃含有乳糖的食品,大约两、三个小时后就可能出现过敏。

“人体失去乳糖酶的程度和速度与人群有关。大部分中国人和日本人在断奶三、四年后都失去了80~90%的乳糖酶,因此乳糖不耐症在中国人和日本人中最常见,但是由于他们的饮食中很少含有乳糖,所以不容易表现出来。其他地区的亚洲人和犹太人则还能保留20~30%的乳糖酶,而北欧人、阿拉伯游牧民族和非洲一些养牛部落,则大部分人都一直保留有比较高的乳糖酶,不会出现乳糖不耐症。只有大约10%的北欧人由于遗传等因素会患乳糖不耐症,有的要在断奶十几、二十年后才出现严重症状。

“达尔文很可能正是属于这少数欧洲人。英国卡的夫大学医学院的两位研究者仔细研究了达尔文的病情记录,发现其症状与全身性乳糖过敏一一吻合。达尔文通常是在饭后两个小时开始发病,发病时间也与乳糖过敏相符。他们还发现,在达尔文的日常饮食中都含有牛奶、奶油等富含乳糖的食品,而达尔文病情好转的时期则恰好是他碰巧没有吃这些食品。另外,达尔文的亲属中也有几个人有类似的病情,这也与乳糖不耐症通常是遗传的这一点相符。”。

看了这三段话,人们不禁要对方舟子刮目相看:莫非方舟子真的是“生物医学出身”?可惜的是,这三段话中的那么多数据,方舟子却没有交代任何出处,而只是说“英国卡的夫大学医学院的两位研究者”。好在网络为我们提供了方便,用Darwin + lactose intolerance等关键词一搜,就找到了这篇文章:Campbell AK, Matthews SB. Darwin's illness revealed. Postgrad Med J. 2005 Apr;81:248-251。显然,方舟子的《达尔文得了什么病》就是根据这篇文章“编译”来的。

不过,遍查这篇全文,我们也找不到什么中国人、日本人、犹太人断奶之后丧失乳糖酶的那些数据。那么,这些数据是怎么来的呢?原来,就在发表Darwin's illness revealed之前一个月,上述两个作者还与人合作,发表了另外一篇文章:Matthews SB, Waud JP, Roberts AG, Campbell AK. Systemic lactose intolerance: a new perspective on an old problem. Postgrad Med J. 2005 Mar;81:167-173。而上引方舟子文章的第一段的后半部分和第二段的全部就是抄自这篇文章:

“Lactose, b galactose 1,4 glucose, is the unique sugar in the milk of all mammals,3–5 except Pinnepedia (sea lions and walruses). It is hydrolysed in the small intestine by the enzyme lactase. All mammals, except white northern Europeans and some other ethnic groups (for example, the Bedouins and African dairying tribes), are hypolactasic—that is, they have a low lactase. This is because they lose 75%–90% of the enzyme within a few years of weaning.”

The eventual level and time course of loss of lactase vary considerably with ethnic group. Chinese and Japanese lose 80%–90% within three to four years after weaning, whereas Asians and Jews can retain some 20%–30%, taking several years to reach the lowest level. The 10% of white northern Europeans who lose lactase after weaning can take 18–20 years to reach their nadir. Thus most of the world’s adult population (about 6000 million people) are hypolactasic.”

除了文字相似、数据相同之外,还有一个证据能够证明方舟子的文章确实是抄袭来的。原来,乳糖不耐症的症状一般在食用乳糖之后半小时左右就可以出现(见:en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lactose_intolerance),但方舟子却说“大约两、三个小时后就可能出现过敏”。这是怎么回事呢?原来,在Darwin's illness revealed中,“英国卡的夫大学医学院的两位研究者”说了这样两句话:

“Darwin’s symptoms match systemic lactose intolerance. Vomiting and gut problems showed up two to three hours after a meal, the time it takes for lactose to reach the large intestine.”

显然,方舟子在写《达尔文得了什么病》时,电脑的两侧分别是Postgrad Med J.的这两篇文章。他左抄一句,右抄一句,凑成了这篇科唬大作(另文分析),换取了大约200元人民币稿费。其实,在亦明兄看来,这么偷东西换稿费,远不如挨锤子赚赔偿,脱裤子、露股沟赚捐赠来得轻巧。

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