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Home >> Tibet & Lamaism

When Dalai Lama Ruled:
Hell on Earth (2)
人间金刚地狱

21 March 2009
 

[1] Hard Climate, Heartless Society

Bitter Poverty, Early Death

The traditional food of the masses is a mush made from tea, yak butter, and a barley flour called tsampa. One 1940 study of eastern Tibet says that 38 percent of households never got any tea--and drank only wild herbs or "white tea" (boiled water). Seventy-five percent of the households were forced at times to eat grass. Half of the people couldn't afford butter--the main source of protein available.

藏区的传统主食是由茶、牛油和大麦混合制成的糍粑。一项1940年的调查显示,38%的藏民家庭从未尝到过茶的味道,只能喝由野草煮开水制成的所谓“白茶”,50%的藏人吃不起作为主要蛋白质来源的牛油,75%的家庭曾不得不以野草充饥度日。

In old Tibet, nothing was known about basic hygiene. The lamas taught that disease and death were caused by sinful "impiety." They said that chanting, obedience, paying monks money and swallowing prayer scrolls was the only real protection from disease.

A third of the population had smallpox. A 1925 smallpox epidemic killed 7,000 in Lhasa. It is not known how many died in the countryside. Leprosy, tuberculosis, goiter, tetanus, blindness and ulcers were very common. Feudal sexual customs spread venereal disease, including in the monasteries. Before the revolution, about 90 percent of the population was infected - causing widespread sterility and death. Later, under the leadership of Mao Tsetung, the revolution was able to greatly reduce these illnesses--but it required intense class struggle against the lamas and their religious superstitions.

在旧西藏,民众根本就没有任何卫生方面的概念及习惯。喇嘛们告诉藏民,他们生病和死亡是做坏事的果报,要想不生病就得常念喇嘛经、顺从喇嘛的旨意、向喇嘛捐钱并吞食喇嘛制作的“甘露丸”。

达赖喇嘛统治的时候,西藏三分之一的人患有天花。1952年的天花大流行仅在拉萨一地就杀死了七千,没人知道在农牧区究竟一共死了多少人。麻风病、肺结核、甲状腺肿瘤、破伤风感染、失明及胃溃疡更是非常普遍。旧藏区混乱的男女关系令性病蔓延,包括在喇嘛寺院内。西藏改革前,大约百分之九十的藏人患有性病,并导致普遍的不育和早亡。而毛泽东政府的试图通过改变藏民生活习惯来减少传染病的努力遭到了来自喇嘛集团的强烈阻挠和抵抗。

The lamaist system of government came into being through bloody struggles. The early lamas reportedly assassinated the last Tibetan king, Lang Darma, in the 10th century. Then they fought centuries of civil wars, complete with mutual massacres of whole monasteries. In the 20th century, the 13th Dalai Lama brought in British imperialist trainers to modernize his national army. He even offered some of his troops to help the British fight World War I.

These historical facts alone prove that lamaist doctrines of "compassion" and "nonviolence" are hypocrisy.

旧西藏的喇嘛政权从一开始就双手沾满了鲜血。最初的于10世纪时从印度来的喇嘛因帮助藏王剿灭对抗他的藏教势力有功而使喇嘛教成为了西藏的主导宗教;随后喇嘛教各宗派之间内讧,互相屠杀了数百年至几近同归于尽的地步。20世纪初,13世达赖喇嘛引进英国军队训练藏军,并主动派遣部分藏军协同英国参与第一次世界大战。

仅仅这些历史事实就足以证明喇嘛教关于“慈悲”和“非暴力”的说教是何等的虚伪。

Daily violence in old Tibet was aimed at the masses of people. Each master punished "his" serfs, and organized armed gangs to enforce his rule. Squads of monks brutalized the people. They were called "Iron Bars" because of the big metal rods they carried to batter people.

It was a crime to "step out of your place" - like hunting fish or wild sheep that the lamaist declared were "sacred." It was even a crime for a serf to appeal his master's decisions to some other authority. When serfs ran away, the masters' gangs went to hunt them down. Each estate had its own dungeons and torture chambers. Pepper was forced under the eyelids. Spikes were forced under the fingernails. Serfs had their legs connected by short chains and were released to wander hobbled for the rest of their lives. Other brutal forms of punishment included the cutting off of hands at the wrists, using red-hot irons to gouge out eyes; hanging by the thumbs; and crippling the offender, sewing him into a bag, and throwing the bag in the river." After the revolution, a rosary was found in the Dalai Lama's palace made of 108 piece of human skins from 108 individuals. After liberation, serfs widely reported that the lamas engaged in ritual human sacrifice--including burying serf children alive in monastery ground-breaking ceremonies.

在旧西藏针对下层民众的暴力事件是无日不有。领主们每天都在惩罚他们的农奴,他们的私人武装用武力维持着领主们对农奴的绝对权威。喇嘛僧团对普通民众的暴行更是无时无处不在;他们因手里常持有一根用来打人的铁棒而被称作“铁棒喇嘛”。

在喇嘛统治的世界里,不守喇嘛定下的规矩 - 比如在喇嘛宣布为圣湖或圣地的处所钓鱼或捕猎 - 属于犯罪行为;而农奴不服其主人的裁决并向其它权力机构申诉更被认为是大罪恶。每个农奴主都有私狱和刑具,对那些犯规农奴的惩罚包括将胡椒粉撒进眼皮下,将签子钉入指甲,为他们戴上永久性的短脚镣令他们一辈子不能随意走路,从手腕处将手砍下,用烧红的热铁将眼珠挖出,用绳系着大拇指将人吊起,挑断脚经,或把人缝进麻袋中再将麻袋扔到河里。西藏改革后,从达赖喇嘛住所里曾搜出了一串用108块不同人皮制成的念珠。昔日的农奴普遍举报喇嘛举行生祭活人的宗教仪式,包括在盖寺院时将农奴的小孩活埋于墙脚下。

Tibet's feudalist abbot-lamas taught that their top lama was a single divine god-king-being - whose rule and dog-eat-dog system was demanded by the natural workings of the universe. These myths and superstitions teach that there can be no social change. This is almost exactly what Europe's medieval Catholic church taught the people, in order to defend a similar feudal system.

Defenders of lamaism act like this religion was the essence of the culture (and even the existence) of the Tibetan people. This is not true. There was culture and ideology in Tibet before lamaism. Then this feudal culture and religion arose together with feudal exploitation. It was inevitable that lamaist culture would shatter together with those feudal relations.

西藏上层喇嘛坚持认为他们的所谓“法王”是转世的神,其统治及人吃人的制度是宇宙法则所规定的,所以喇嘛们坚决拒绝任何社会变革。这和欧洲中世纪时天主教会反对社会公平和改革的态度如出一辙。

喇嘛教的捍卫者们爱侈言喇嘛教是西藏文化的精髓,甚至是藏民生存的基础。这完全是屁话。喇嘛教进藏只有一千年的历史,难道在此之前西藏就没有自己的文化?难道西藏民族是在一千年前突然从石头里蹦出来的?毋庸置疑, 喇嘛教是西藏千年来残酷愚昧的农奴社会的基础,也不得不随着农奴社会的解体而消失。

Prev: Hell on Earth (1)
Next: The Annual Spring Excursion

 
 
RELATED:

The Tibetan Serf

Click on the image to watch the film online

The Serf is the first Chinese movie filmed in Tibet. Produced in 1960s and performed by all-Tibetan actors, it is a work inspired by a stage play created by former Tibetan serfs which recounted their sufferings under the Dalai Lama's rule. The scene that during the performance Tibetan people wept and sobbed on the stage and in audience touch Huang Zongjiang (黄宗江), a renowned play writer, which motivated him to write a story about Tibetan serfs.

During his research, Huang met a serf in a hospital who suffered stab wounds from his master. When nurses washed clean his feet and hands, the man cried, and said, "This is first time in my life I feel my hands and feet are truly mine." That stroke a chord deep within Huang's heart and helped him to shape the whole story.

Leading actor Wangdui (旺堆) has a similar life experience as the character he played in the film. Born a serf, he could not endue the inhuman treatment by his master, so escaped to monastery and became a lama. But the life at Lama monastery was equally brutal, so he fled again, eventually arrived in Shanghai and studied at a leading drama school. Later he became the director of Tibetan Drama Theatre.

A Folk Song in Old Tibet under Dalai Lama:

Wherever rays of the sun reach,
That is land belonging to the lord;

Wherever the water flows,
That is land belonging to the lord;

Wherever mountain shadows cast,
That is land belonging to the lord.

The serf does not own a piece of land The size of a sole,
What he takes away is nothing
But his own shadow.

阳光照到哪里,哪里就是头人的领域;
河水流到哪里,哪里就是头人的财物;
山影映到哪里,哪里就是头人的土地;

农奴脚下没有巴掌大的立足之地,
只有自己的影子伴随他从生到死。


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