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Home >> Tibet & Lamaism

Storming "Heaven" (3)

13 March 2009
 

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In March 1959, armed monks and Tibetan soldiers attacked the revolutionary garrison in Lhasa and launched a revolt along the Tibet-India border. One monk later said, "All of us were told that, if we killed a Han, we would become Living Buddhas and have chapels to our name." Without much support among the masses, the lamaists were soon dug in at some shrines. The main revolt was over within a few days.

1959年3月,喇嘛和地方武装袭击解放大军在拉萨的驻地,并在中印边境一带武装叛乱。一喇嘛后来回忆说:“他们告诉我们,要是我们能杀死一个汉人,我们就能变成活佛,我们的名字会被刻印在佛堂里。”但由于缺乏广大藏民的支持,喇嘛的叛乱很快就龟缩到几个主要寺庙里,最终只持续了数天功夫。

 

During the fighting, the Dalai Lama fled into exile. This flight is portrayed by lamaists as a heroic, even mystical event. But it is now well documented that the Dalai Lama was whisked away by a CIA covert operation. The Dalai Lama's own autobiography admits that his cook and radio operator on that trip were CIA agents. The CIA wanted him outside of Tibet--as a symbol for a contra-style war against the Maoist revolution.

混战中,达赖喇嘛逃窜出境。达赖的出逃被喇嘛描述成充满神秘色彩的英雄壮举。但根据现在公开的文件,此次出逃只不过是美国中情局的一次军事行动。达赖喇嘛在其自传中承认他当时的厨子和无线电通讯员是中情局的人。中情局需要达赖离开中国作为美国反华大业中的一个具有象征性意义的棋子。

Defeated in their revolt, large sections of the upper clergy and aristocracy followed the Dalai Lama south into India--accompanied by many slave-servants, armed guards and mule-trains of wealth. In all, 13,000 went into exile, among them the most hard-core feudal forces and their supporters. Suddenly, many of Tibet's Three Masters--the rich lamas, the high government officials, and the secular aristocrats--were gone!

叛乱惨败后,大部分上层喇嘛和贵族带着他们的奴隶、仆人、家丁及他们搜刮来的大量的金银财宝跟着达赖逃到印度南部,总计约有1万3千人。忽然之间,西藏的三大领主 - 富裕的喇嘛、高官和贵族 - 全都消失了。

The Dalai Lama's Kashag government had largely supported this counterrevolutionary revolt and was dissolved. Forced ulag labor was abolished. The nangzen slaves of the nobles and monasteries were freed. The masses of slave-monks were suddenly allowed to leave the monasteries. Arms caches were cleaned out of the main monasteries, and key conspirators were arrested.

达赖旧政府因支持公开武装叛乱被解散了。无偿劳役在西藏终于被废止了;奴隶和农奴被解放了;广大贫苦喇嘛可以自由选择是否要离开寺院。私藏于喇嘛庙中的武器被收缴了,叛乱阴谋的主要策划者被逮捕法办了。

Some people like to talk about "struggle for religious freedom in Tibet"--but throughout Tibetan history, the main struggle around "religious freedom" has been for the freedom not to believe, not to obey the cruel monks and their endless superstitions. The sight of thousands of young monks eagerly getting married and doing manual labor was a powerful blow to superstitious awe.

一些人喜欢侈谈西藏宗教自由。殊不知纵观西藏历史,西藏的宗教问题不是没有信教的自由,而是没有不信教的自由,没有不顺从残暴喇嘛的自由,没有不信奉愚昧巫术的自由。

Women's liberation got off the ground--under the then-shocking slogan "All men and women are equal!" Revolutionary property changes helped ease old pressures for polygamy. With a large new pool of eligible men, there was no longer the same pressure for women to accept a situation where one man could have many wives. With the redistribution of the land, women were no longer under the same pressure to marry several brothers in one family?

在“男女都一样”的口号下,西藏掀起了妇女解放运动,倡导废止群婚制。由于大量的喇嘛还俗,女性不必再忍受一夫多妻制;而由于土地改革,妇女亦不用再嫁给一家庭中的一群兄弟。

Without the land rent, the huge parasitic monasteries started to dry up. About half the monks left them and about half the monasteries closed down.

Serfs said: "The sun of the Kashag shone only on the Three Masters and their landlord henchmen, but the sun of the Communist Party and Chairman Mao shines on us--the poor people."

由于失去了地租收入,大量寄生虫般吸血的喇嘛寺院只能关门大吉。

按农奴的说法:“达赖政权的阳光照耀着三大领主,共产党的阳光温暖着广大贫苦藏民。”

These revolutionary moves took intense and often bloody class struggle. There was all the complexity, heroism, mistakes, advances and setbacks of real-life revolution.

Sharp struggle also broke out in the new Institutes of National Minorities--often along class lines. Some Tibetan students from aristocratic background intended to become a new elite--some resented it when land reform affected their serf-owning families back in Tibet. They also rejected moves toward social equality: demanding to have servants who would make their beds and clean their rooms, and they refused to mingle with fellow students from slave and serf backgrounds. Similar issues divided the new schools in Lhasa itself: aristocrat-students demanded that slave-students carry their "master's" books. Lamas were sent in to "oversee education" and conduct prayers before and after study sessions.

但对旧西藏的改造不是一番风顺的,而是一场长期的血与火的搏斗。

在北京的中央民族学院中,搏斗是以阶级划线的。一些有旧西藏贵族背景的学生试图成为西藏的新贵族,还有一些家中土地被遭重新分配的领主后代对新中国充满了仇恨。他们反对社会平等,要求政府给他们配备为他们铺床扫屋的奴仆,拒绝和出生奴隶和农奴的学生平起平坐。同样的情况也出现在拉萨的校园内:旧贵族学生责令原奴隶学生为他们背书包;喇嘛们跑进了各个教室监视学校的教育,并坚持在课前课后举行喇嘛教的宗教仪式。

Prev: Dalai Lama's Magic Horn
Next: Storming "Heaven" (2)

 
 
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