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Home >> Tibet & Lamaism

Storming "Heaven" (2)

13 March 2009
 

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The Tibetan masses were too poor to spare any grain for the revolutionary troops. So the PLA soldiers often went hungry until their own fields were ready for harvest. They were taught to respect Tibetan cultures and beliefs--even, for now, the intense superstitious fears that dominated Tibetan life.

[当解放大军初入西藏时],广大的藏民实在是太穷了,根本无力提供军队任何物质上的支持。解放军官兵经常性地忍饥挨饿,直到开始收获他们自己种植的庄稼。他们被指令必须尊重藏民的文化和信仰。

 

During those first years, the PLA worked as a great construction force building the first roads connecting Tibet with central China. A long string of workcamps stretched thousands of miles through endless mountains and gorges. Alongside these camps, the Han soldiers raised their own food using new collective methods. Serfs from surrounding areas were paid wages for work on the road.

在最初的几年中,解放大军修建了第一条连接西藏与中原大地的公路。在绵延数千里的山峰和深谷中,到处可见解放军的施工队。在施工队的周围汉人官兵开荒耕地、生产粮食。当附近的藏族农奴们帮助修建公路时,解放军付给他们工资。

The rulers of old Tibet treated the serfs like "talking animals" and forced them to do endless unpaid labor--so the behavior of these PLA troops was shocking to the Tibetan masses. One serf said, "The Hans worked side by side with us. They did not whip us. For the first time I was treated as a human being." Another serf described the day a PLA soldier gave him water from the soldier's own cup, "I could not believe it!" As serfs were trained to repair trucks, they became the first proletarians in the history of Tibet. One runaway said: "We understood it was not the will of the gods, but the cruelty of humans like ourselves, which kept us slaves."

西藏统治阶层历来对待他们的农奴就像对待会说话的牲口,并强迫农奴无休无止地为他们义务打工。故此解放大军对农奴的态度震动了整个藏区。一农奴说:“汉人和我们并肩劳动。不用鞭子抽打我们。平生头一回我被当个人看。”另一位农奴提起如何一位解放军战士把他自己杯子里的水给他喝:“我当时简直不敢相信他会这么做。”还有一位偷跑出来的农奴说:“我终于明白了,不是佛主的旨意,而是我们人类的残忍使我们变成了奴隶。”

Once the first white-sand road was completed, long caravans of PLA trucks arrived, carrying key goods like tea and matches. The expanded trade and especially the availability of inexpensive tea improved the diet of ordinary Tibetans. By the mid-'50s, the first telephones, telegraphs, radio station and modern printing had been organized. The first newspapers, books and pamphlets appeared, in both Han and Tibetan. After 1955, Tibet's first real schools were founded. By July 1957 there were 79 elementary schools, with 6,000 students. All this started to improve the life of poor people and infuriated the upper classes, who had always monopolized all trade, book-learning and contact with the outside world.

第一条进藏公路终于修通了,连绵不绝的解放牌大卡车给藏民送来了他们紧缺的茶和火柴。贸易的扩大和价格低廉的生活必需品大大改善了中下层藏民的生活。至五十年代中,西藏出现了第一部电话机、第一封电报、第一个无线电台、第一台印刷机、第一份报纸、第一本书以及第一张传单,同时用汉语和藏语写成。1955年后,西藏的第一所学校建成使用了。至1957年7月,西藏共有了79所小学,计6千多名学生。所有这些却让藏族上层统治者恼火万分,因为买进卖出、识字读书及与外部世界交往向来是他们独享的特权。

When revolutionary medical teams started healing people, even monks and the upper classes started showing up at the early clinics. This undermined superstitions that condemned innovation and preached that diseases were caused by sinful behavior.

当解放军医疗队开始为藏民治病时,连喇嘛及头人都跑去看病求医了。这无疑是对西藏迷信的挑战。按喇嘛教一贯的说法,生病是因为人做了坏事受到上天的惩罚所致。

Starting in 1956, increasingly intense armed revolts organized by feudal landowners started in Han-Tibet border areas. These areas were not covered by the 17 points, and the serfs there were being encouraged by the revolutionaries to stop paying land rent to the monasteries and estates.

从1956年始,在汉藏交界区域,由藏族农奴主组织的武装暴动变得日益频繁。这些区域不属于“17条协议”所涵盖的地区,土地改革与全中国同步实行,广大农奴和贫苦藏民们开始拒绝向喇嘛寺院和农奴主缴租。

Some forces within the Communist Party urged compromise. They suggested slowing down the land reform and closing down the schools and clinics that were opposed by the lamaists. Teachers and medical teams were withdrawn. But this did not stop the conspiracies of the lamaists.

In the late '50s, the Tibetan ruling class pressed ahead with a full-scale revolt. CIA support was increasing, and trained agents were in place.

中共内部出现了要求中央政府向喇嘛和农奴主妥协的声音,建议政府关闭喇嘛们所敌视的学校和医院。教师和医务人员被令撤出藏区。但这些措施并未能使喇嘛们停止他们蓄谋已久的武装叛乱阴谋。五十年代后期,西藏统治集团全面叛乱,美国中情局增强了支持力度,并派遣经过特殊训练的中情局特务在相关喇嘛寺庙待命。

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Prev: Dalai Lama's Magic Horn
Next: Storming "Heaven" (2)

 
 
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