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Ford Foundation and CIA

27 December 2008
 

by James Petras
Bartle Professor (Emeritus) of Sociology at Binghampton University, New York

(Excerpts)

The CIA uses philanthropic foundations as the most effective conduit to channel large sums of money to Agency projects without alerting the recipients to their source. From the early 1950s to the present the CIA's intrusion into the foundation field was and is huge. A U.S. Congressional investigation in 1976 revealed that nearly 50% of the 700 grants in the field of international activities by the principal foundations were funded by the CIA. The CIA considers foundations such as Ford "The best and most plausible kind of funding cover" (Ibid, p. 135).

自从五十年代开始一直持续到现在,美国中情局经常性地利用美国的慈善基金会将大笔资金悄悄地转移到它在世界各地的间谍的账户上。美国国会1976年的一项调查显示,在700项表面上是慈善机构赞助的国际援助项目中,差不多有百分之五十是中情局出钱并操纵的。

The collaboration of respectable and prestigious foundations, according to one former CIA operative, allowed the Agency to fund "a seemingly limitless range of covert action programs affecting youth groups, labor unions, universities, publishing houses and other private institutions" (p. 135). The latter included "human rights" groups beginning in the 1950s to the present. One of the most important "private foundations" collaborating with the CIA over a significant span of time in major projects in the cultural Cold War is the Ford Foundation.

中情局将福特等基金会看作是在世界各地转移资金的最好渠道,通过这一系列挂羊头卖狗肉的慈善机构,中情局将其触角渗入到各国的各类组织中去,包括青年团体,工会,大学,出版社以及其他私人研究所和人权组织。而在所有这些基金会中,福特的贡献是最突出的,尤其在协助中情局展开文化等软实力的冷战方面。

By the late 1950s the Ford Foundation possessed over $3 billion in assets. The leaders of the Foundation were in total agreement with Washington's post-WWII projection of world power. A noted scholar of the period writes: "At times it seemed as if the Ford Foundation was simply an extension of government in the area of international cultural propaganda. The foundation had a record of close involvement in covert actions in Europe, working closely with Marshall Plan and CIA officials on specific projects" (Ibid, p.139).

至50年代末,福特基金会已有了大约30亿美元的基金,而且基金理事会的理事长和理事们一致赞同二次大战后华盛顿寻求世界霸权的计划。当时的一位观察家曾写道:“有时福特基金会看起来就像是美国政府的一个对外宣传部门。这个基金会曾有帮助美国政府和中情局在欧洲实行马歇尔计划的前科。"

This is graphically illustrated by the naming of Richard Bissell as President of the Foundation in 1952. In his two years in office Bissell met often with the head of the CIA, Allen Dulles, and other CIA officials in a "mutual search" for new ideas. In 1954 Bissell left Ford to become a special assistant to Allen Dulles in January 1954 (Ibid, p. 139). Under Bissell, the Ford Foundation (FF) was the "vanguard of Cold War thinking".

必塞尔是五十年代初的福特基金会理事长,他后来回忆时提起他当时三天两头和中情局头子倒尔会面,探讨在世界各地搅局的新点子。

在必塞尔的领导下,福特基金会转变成了美国的冷战先锋。

One of the FF first Cold War projects was the establishment of a publishing house, Inter-cultural Publications, and the publication of a magazine Perspectives in Europe in four languages. The FF purpose according to Bissell was not "so much to defeat the leftist intellectuals in dialectical combat (sic) as to lure them away from their positions" (Ibid, p. 140). The board of directors of the publishing house was completely dominated by cultural Cold Warriors. Given the strong leftist culture in Europe in the post-war period, Perspectives failed to attract readers and went bankrupt.

二战后福特基金会的第一个冷战目标便是在欧洲创建出版社,专门出版文化交流方面的出版物,其中有一本用四种语言出版的杂志叫“观察”。

按照必塞尔的方针,“观察”不应该寻求和左派磨嘴皮子讨口舌上的便宜,而应该在不知不觉中转化他们的立场。可惜必塞尔也不过只有嘴皮上这点功夫,最后“观察”不但没能转变对手的立场,反倒是自己破产走人。

In 1954 the new president of the FF was John McCloy. He epitomized imperial power. Prior to becoming president of the FF he had been Assistant Secretary of War, president of the World Bank, High Commissioner of occupied Germany, chairman of Rockefeller's Chase Manhattan Bank, Wall Street attorney for the big seven oil companies and director of numerous corporations. As High Commissioner in Germany, McCloy had provided cover for scores of CIA agents (Ibid, p. 141).

从1954年起,强卖客担任福特基金会的理事长。此人是一位狂热的美利坚帝国信奉者。在此之前他曾担任过助理战争部长,世界银行总裁,美国在战败国德国的特派大员以及七大石油公司的华尔街总监。在担任特派德国大员时,他曾协助中情局完成了多项秘密行动计划。

McCloy integrated the FF with CIA operations. He created an administrative unit within the FF specifically to deal with the CIA. McCloy headed a three person consultation committee with the CIA to facilitate the use of the FF for a cover and conduit of funds. With these structural linkages the FF was one of those organizations the CIA was able to mobilize for political warfare against the anti-imperialist and pro-communist left. Numerous CIA "fronts" received major FF grants. Numerous supposedly "independent" CIA sponsored cultural organizations, human rights groups, artists and intellectuals received CIA/FF grants. One of the biggest donations of the FF was to the CIA organized Congress for Cultural Freedom which received $7 million by the early 1960s. Numerous CIA operatives secured employment in the FF and continued close collaboration with the Agency (Ibid, p. 143).

强卖客将福特基金会和中情局整合在一起,在基金会内部设立一专为中情局服务的机构,他自己担纲有中情局参与的三人委员会,负责基金会为中情局转帐的事宜。有了福特基金会这样召之即来的托,中情局放开手脚大肆围剿反霸业和亲共党的势力。大量的散布于世界各国的“前沿”阵线因此收到了源源不断的资助;无数所谓的政治上不偏不倚的文化组织、人权组织、艺术家及学者收到了中情局通过福特基金会转来的资金。事实是,得到福特基金会最大赞助的机构之一正是中情局一手策划组建的“自由文化协会“,至六十年代初共接受了由福特基金会经手的7亿美元的捐款。 并有许多前中情局人员转到福特基金会工作,以增强这两个机构之间的协调合作。

The Ford Foundation's history of collaboration and interlock with the CIA in pursuit of U.S. world hegemony is now a well-documented fact. The remaining issue is whether that relationship continues into the new Millenium after the exposures of the 1960s?

自六十年代以来通过不断地揭露,福特基金会与中情局狼狈为奸为美国寻求世界霸权的历史已为世人熟知。问题是进入21世纪以来福特基金会是不是仍然按照老原则在运作呢?

The FF has in some ways refined their style of collaboration with Washington's attempt to produce world cultural domination, but retained the substance of that policy. For example the FF is very selective in the funding of educational institutions. Like the IMF, the FF imposes conditions such as the "professionalization" of academic personnel and "raising standards." In effect this translates into the promotion of social scientific work based on the assumptions, values and orientations of the U.S. empire.

表面上福特基金会在帮助华盛顿寻求文化霸权上确实有所收敛,但骨子里的意向没变。举例说,它在决定赞助某个学校时会提出苛刻的条件,比如要求学校的教学方针和方法作一定的改变以达到它所希望的标准,而这些标准正是按照美国全球战略的意图设身打造的。

Ford Foundation's president entertains her hosts, the leaders and the teachers and the students of a Chinese university situated in a Muslim autonomous region, by singing a song in karaoke.

At a time when government over-funding of cultural activities by Washington is suspect, the FF fulfills a very important role in projecting U.S. cultural policies as an apparently "private" non-political philanthropic organization. The ties between the top officials of the FF and the U.S. government are explicit and continuing. A review of recently funded projects reveals that the FF has never funded any major project that contravenes U.S. policy.

而当美国政府的文化基金周转不过来时,福特基金会便会马上来填补这个空白。两者之间的互动是如此密切和协调,很显然,他们的关系在本质上没有变化。当你回顾福特基金会近年来的"慈善"轨迹时,你会发现它从未赞助过任何一个与美国政府的政策相左的项目。

In the current period of a major U.S. military-political offensive, Washington has posed the issue as "terrorism or democracy," just as during the Cold War it posed the question as "Communism or Democracy." The Ford Foundation is well situated to replay its role as collaborator to cover for the New Cultural Cold War.

在当下美国于政治和军事上大肆向外扩张的大环境中,"恐怖主义或民主政体"便成为区分邪恶与正义的试金石,并进一步转化为美国新一轮冷战的借口,一如当初它利用"共产主义或民主政体"作为干涉别国的借口一样,而福特基金会无疑地在此新世纪的文化冷战中又有了广阔的用武之地。

Full text can be viewed at www.ratical.org/ratville/CAH/FordFandCIA.html

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